Senin, 27 Oktober 2014

Real Food Right Now and How to Cook It: Mushrooms

As with fennel and kohlrabi, I didn’t start appreciating mushrooms until i used to be well into my 20s. I assume I associated the fungi with sliminess, a cookery attribute that I realize somewhat upsetting. (I got to admit I still don’t just like the slimier finish of the mushroom family – like reconstituted wood ear mushrooms in my hot and bitter soup – shudder.) I’ve gotten wise the earthy, umami-laden appetizingness of most of the mushroom family, especially when they’re sautéed in countless butter and tossed with fresh herbs.
A Brief History

The Oxford Companion to Food notes that mushrooms have most likely been foraged since pre-historic times; proof of puffballs seems in early settlements in Europe. Mushrooms, together with truffles, were prized in ancient Greece and Rome. Cynthia Bertelsen, in her book Mushroom: a world History, says that each Pliny the Elder and Aristotle wrote regarding the fungi, and Roman philosopher Galen wrote a couple of paragraphs on wild mushroom foraging. Bertelsen says that mushrooms – particularly shiitakes – were most likely 1st cultivated in China and Japan as early as 600 C.E. It took a jiffy for mushrooms to catch on in America. In the US, the first reference to mushrooms in an American cookbook is in The Virginia Housewife (1824). Campbell’s Cream of Mushroom soup, the American staple employed in countless casserole recipes, was unreal within the Thirties. psychoactive  mushrooms conjointly have a long place in human history; Bertelsen notes that archeologic proof of mushrooms used “spiritually” might be as previous as ten,000 B.C.E. there's evidence of hallucinogenic mushroom use by many cultures – including the traditional Greeks, the Mayans, the Chinese and also the Vikings, among several others.
Factual Nibbles

    Watch this slightly trippy TED talk by mycologist Paul Stamets called “Six Ways Mushrooms Can Save the planet.”
    Here is a noteworthy video regarding Matsutake mushroom looking in OR.
    Mushrooms have been artists’ subjects across the world for generations, such a lot in order that The North yank Mycological Association encompasses a written record of Mushrooms in Works of Art. (This registry is targeted totally on Western art, although mushrooms appear in works of art from many non-Western sources as well.)
    You may wish to browse the North American Truffling Society’s webpage, do you have to have to be compelled to train your truffle dog.
    I seriously would like some mushroom-related merch from Fungi Magazine. Or a subscription to Fungi Magazine. (I hope Santa is listening.)
    Some mushroom species are bioluminescent! you'll even buy them on eBay!
    Huitlacoche (a/k/a corn smut) may be a form of fungus that grows on ears of corn; it’s a delicacy in Mexico. Scientists recently discovered that it’s far more wholesome than the corn it grows on.

Cultivation

Out of the thousands of mushroom sorts, Bertelsen notes there are around 200-250 that are edible (and some of mushroom types that are very poisonous). The term “mushroom” is employed to see any edible flora, of that there square measure many various sorts, shapes and sizes, from the common button mushroom to truffles to bracket fungi. Mushrooms square measure foraged everywhere the planet, with some cultures, like Russia, having a lot of of what Cynthia Bertelsen terms “mycophilic geography” than others.

A word to the wise, although – don’t ever, ever eat a wild mushroom unless you recognize evidently that they're not deadly. There square measure several wild mushroom varieties that will cause acute poisoning and even death; some of these might even look like edible varieties. Here’s a fun guide (if you’re morbid like that) to a number of the a lot of common deadly mushrooms in North America, and also the numerous symptoms they cause.

Many edible mushrooms will be cultivated – some a lot of simply than others. Truffles, for instance, need somewhat a lot of patience and experience (and trees to grow under), however several of the a lot of common edible sorts, including portobello, shiitake and buttons will be grown fairly easily reception – just explore for mushroom growing kits online. Commercial cultivation of mushrooms can be fairly intensive; different varieties of mushrooms require different levels of humidity and differing temperatures. Here’s a desirable video from one among the most important mushroom farms within the US that shows what number mushroom varieties square measure commercially big (and, as a bonus, explains the distinction between portabello mushrooms and criminis).
Seasonality

Wild mushrooms square measure usually foraged in the Spring and in the Fall, betting on selection and geographics (here’s a handy guide to wild mushroom season, by variety). Most cultivated mushrooms square measure out there year-round .
Environmental Impact

Serious mushroom cultivation will be a fairly energy-intensive operation, requiring sophisticated climate and wetness management. consistent with this text from Penn State, several mushroom farming operations square measure making an attempt to become a lot of environmentally friendly, however issues like waste disposal, pollution from mushroom house runoff and chemical management persist. Farmers are attempting to lose “spent mushroom subtrate” – i.e., the things that cultivated mushrooms grow on – in a very a lot of environmentally friendly manner (for example, by being composted or unfold on fields).

Don’t assume that mushrooms square measure big organically – many forms of pesticides will be employed in typical business cultivation. There square measure smaller mushroom-growing operations doping up across the country – investigate your native farmer’s market to examine if you'll realize domestically big, organic mushrooms.

Even wild mushroom hunting has some negative environmental impacts. the increase in quality of untamed harvest has taken its toll in some places. As more and more people get into foraging, a number of the old-school rules square measure being broken – by exploit trash, taking over what's allowed by state rules and sound plants.
Characteristics and What to Look For

Edible mushrooms vary enormously in size, form and color and may be out there each recent and dried, betting on the range. Here’s a good downloadable visual guide for several of the foremost common forms of edible mushrooms. for many recent mushrooms with gills (the feathery ring on the bottom of the cap), the a lot of open the gills, the older the mushroom. this can be not essentially a nasty factor, as a result of older mushrooms will be far more flavorsome than younger ones. explore for recent mushrooms while not slippy, musty or black spots. Some dirt is a-okay.
Nutrition and Effects on the Body

While totally different|completely different} mushroom varieties have slightly different nutritionary compositions, most square measure quite high in B complex (Vitamin B2), B vitamin (Vitamin B3 ) pantothen (Vitamin B5), and conjointly contain some minerals, like copper, selenium, chemical element and atomic number 19. They even have somewhat of supermolecule and iron.

Mushrooms have been used medicinally by cultures all over the world. As this text regarding our friend botanist (mushroom scientist) Paul Stamets (check out his Ted speak within the link above) describes, shiitakes is also useful to the system and facilitate lower cholesterol; button mushrooms have potent inhibitor properties; some psychoactive  mushroom compounds might facilitate alleviate depression. On the draw back, Cynthia Bertelsen says that every one mushroom varieties contain agaritine, that break down into numerous cancer compounds that may injury human DNA; she notes that the majority mycologists advocate cookery mushrooms for this reason.
What to Do with It

First: the nice mushroom cleansing dialogue. do you have to rinse your mushrooms, or not? I was educated to not rinse mushrooms, lest the intercalary water keep them from browning once sautéed. therefore I’d slog through the arduous task of wiping every mushroom with a moist towel. Lately, a lot of ironed for time, I provide them a fast rinse and decision it daily, with no noticeable negative cooking repercussions.

Fresh mushrooms will be saute any manner your heart wishes – cooked, braised, roasted, grilled, steamed and sautéed. several recent mushroom varieties square measure conjointly delicious raw. They try brightly with farm (especially cheese and bitter cream), meats of every kind, eggs, recent herbs and vegetables. Dried mushrooms should be reconstituted before you utilize them. Overall, dried mushrooms have a way more concentrated flavor than fresh and are great braised in liquid or added to mixtures like risotto. (And save their soaking liquid to feature to your dish.)
Cooking

Mushrooms are pretty forgiving within the kitchen – i believe they taste great regardless of how they're prepared! they're yummy tossed onto pizzas, sliced into salads, mixed into risottos and sautéed as a aspect dish. Mushrooms square measure prized in such a big amount of totally different cuisines across the world, it’s easy to include them into your cooking. jap Europe and Russia square measure regions far-famed for his or her mushroom dishes, and hunting is a very important a part of the cultural heritage in these places. investigate this delicious-looking Russian mushroom-barley soup! Here’s a pleasant list of Chinese-inspired mushroom recipes, victimisation mushrooms like wood-ear and oyster. Italians conjointly love their mushrooms – although i do know he's positively not Italian, check out this “Italian-inspired” recipe for Baked Cheesy Mushrooms with Bacon Bits and Croutons from Jamie Oliver. Or this mushroom gratinate from Lidia Bastianich (she is truly Italian). Mushrooms conjointly build Associate in Nursing look in several, several classic French dishes, like mushroom duxelles (basically, mushroom paste…it tastes higher than it sounds), used as a stuffing and a topping.
Storage

Fresh mushrooms don’t impediment well to storage, betting on the range. Most mushrooms move keep within the crisper drawer – ideally, in a very sack for air circulation – for 3 to four days, tops. Dried mushrooms will be keep and sealed in a very dry place for a year or a lot of.
Stretching your food dollar though preservation

Here’s a instruction for laco-fermented mushrooms, though apparently even fermentation guru Sandor Katz may be a very little cautious regarding mushroom fermentation. you'll attempt seasoning your mushrooms, as during this instruction by coil Shaw over at Hunger, Angler, Gardner, Cook. Here’s another instruction for mushroom pickles. mythical being Meredith offers US the ins-and-outs of temperature reduction mushrooms here and oven-drying them here.
Recipe
Mixed Mushroom Crostini with Fresh Herbs, cheese and Cayenne

I love creating crostini with no matter seasonal veggies I even have available. These mushroom versions square measure nice year-round , however particularly now of year once the pickings at the farmer’s market square measure therefore restricted. mess around with the sort of mushrooms or herbs you utilize, or substitute chevre for the cheese. simply ensure that your sauté pan is piping hot which you don’t overcrowd your mushrooms – they won’t brown as nicely if they’re too packed within the pan.

Ingredients:

2 tablespoons further virgin vegetable oil

1⁄2 pound mixed small mushrooms, like buttons, crimini and oysters, or any combination, clean and sliced

Salt and freshly ground pepper

3 tablespoons of recent herbs, such as parsley, chives and thyme, or any combination

1⁄2 cup recent cheese cheese

1 tablespoon juice

1⁄4 teaspoon cayenne

10-15 slices of baguette, cut on the diagonal

1 clove garlic, bare-ass and cut in 0.5

Additional further virgin vegetable oil, for descending

Method:

 heat up the kitchen appliance to 350F.
    Sauté the mushrooms: heat the vegetable oil in a very giant, heavy sauté pan until highly regarded, however not smoking. Add the mushrooms, taking care to not over crowd them. (If you don’t have a 10-12 in. sauté pan, contemplate sautéing the mushrooms in batches.) Sauté over medium-high heat for a few minutes, stirring sometimes, then add a pinch of salt and a grinding of pepper. Stir to coat. when a couple of a lot of minutes, the mushrooms ought to begin to unleash some of their liquid. still sauté till all of the liquid is gone and also the mushrooms have began to brown.
    Transfer the mushrooms to a bowl and style and proper for salt. Gently stir in two tablespoons of the fresh herbs, reserving the last tablespoon for garnish.
    Place the baguette slices on a sheet pan and toast in the oven for 10-15 minutes, turning once, until golden brown. straightaway rub every bit of French bread with the cut-side of 1 of the garlic halves, repetition with the opposite 0.5 if necessary.
    In a tiny bowl, gently stir the ricotta, cayenne, juice and a pinch of salt along.
    To serve: munificently unfold every French bread slice with the cheese mixture. prime with a number of the mushroom mixture and a sprinkling of recent herbs. Serve immediately.

(*Real Food rule of thumb: we expect that 1st and foremost, in terms of nutrition, individuals ought to eat countless fruits and vegetables whether or not they square measure organic or not. The EWG’s guide is a handy list, but we are going to denote here that the impacts of pesticides aren't limited to your ingestion of them – agricultural chemicals also affect farmworkers and native waterways, each sensible reasons to obtain organic, even those vegetables that carry a lightweight chemical load. Also, it's been incontestable  that manufacture big by small-scale farmers, even people who aren't certified organic, tends to possess a lighter chemical load than its industrially-produced counterpart, attributable to industry’s tendency toward giant monocrops.)
Welcome to the actual World of Mushrooms: A Delicious and also Healthy Food!